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Accesible Solutions to waste management issues in kenya
Kenya, like most developing regions of the world, suffers from a heightened risk of disease and infection from food and water supplies due to issues caused by the current waste management conditions. The objective of this project is to study aspects of common techniques for waste management and utilize the findings to propose an alternative solution to the issue.
The project is divided into five stages: identify extent of health hazards, identify current practices and past implementations, test current practices and past implementations for evaluation, design, and design testing. The first two stages are to be completed in the summer of 2013, the third stage is to be completed in the fall 2013-spring 2014 university year, and the final two stages are to be completed in the summer of 2014.
The researchers involved in the project are Timothy Lalowski and Jefferson West. Timothy Lalowski is a third year Architectural Engineering major at the Illinois Institute of Technology with additional studies in Civil Engineering and Architecture. Jefferson West is a third year Chemical Engineering major at the Illinois Institute of Technology with a minor in Business. Both students are in good academic standing.
The advising and evaluation roles of the project are to be undertaken by Dr. David O. Carpenter, director of the World Health Organization Collaborative Center for Environmental Health at the University of Albany Institute for Health and the Environment.
II. NEED STATEMENT
Rarely do developing regions receive aide which is accessible to the population at a point of time in the future. Equipment fails, buildings deteriorate, and systems are broken, without the resources necessary to repair or further develop what has been implemented. Often, time and money goes to waste, funding implementations that cannot be properly utilized due to the differing structure of society and variety of resources. This is caused by a misunderstanding of the needs and structure of the region. Developing regions need strategies of waste management based specifically on their cultural and regional needs, instead of implementing techniques developed for use in relief supplying countries.
A. Description of specific problem targeted
Waste management solutions in Kenya lack accessibility, and their implementation lacks reinforcement. As a result, the habitants of the region suffer from diseases and infections caused by the soil, air, water, and food contamination.
B. Previous actions to deal with this need
1.) Community Composting Initiatives
2.) Waste Collection NGOs and CBOs
3.) Privatization of waste collection and disposal
4.) Scavenging systems
5.) Recycling Initiatives
6.) Incineration Plants
7.) Chemical Treatment Plants
8.) National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA)
Few have provided a significant change in waste reduction or effective and safe disposal. The effective techniques are unable to keep up with the growing demands.
C. Supportive data/information verifying the need
Data Presented by the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation attached, and can be found at the following URL: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/africasan.pdf
D. Approach and benefit
The approach of the project focuses on the accessibility of waste management solutions. Success of the project relies on the successful education and future accessibility of resources utilized in the proposed solutions.
III. PLAN OF OPERATION
A. Project design
Developing countries pose a uniquely high risk of disease from water and soil contamination. It is the objective of this project to first identify the extent of the health risk based on current conditions. Phases two and three aim to identify influences that either increase or decrease the level of health risk related to the current waste management conditions. The final two stages present an implementation to alleviate some of the risk associated with the current conditions of waste management in Nairobi, Kenya.
B. Project structure
Goals: The primary goal of the project is to develop and test waste management solutions based on the observations and tests of previous unsuccessful implementations.
Phase I: Identify Extent of Issues in Waste Management
i. Test levels of soil contamination (chemical)
ii. Test levels of water contamination (chemical and pathogenic)
iii. Test levels of air pollution
iv. Gage waste production rates
v. Gage recycling rates of waste reduction
vi. Gage composting rate of waste reduction and benefits
vii. Gage waste treatment rate of waste reduction and efficiency
viii. Gage water treatment rate and efficiency
Phase II: Identify Implementation Success and Failures
ix. Identify current waste management practices and past implementations
x. Observe current waste management practices and past implementations
xi. Evaluate success and failure of current waste management practices and past implementations
xii. Isolate aspects of current waste management practices and past implementations
Phase III: Implementation Testing for Evaluation
xiii. Design testing procedure of isolated aspects of current waste management practices and past implementations
xiv. Perform testing procedure of isolated aspects of current waste management practices and past implementations
xv. Repeat testing procedure of isolated aspects of current waste management practices and past implementations
xvi. Evaluate tests on successes and failures of current waste management practices and past implementations
Phase IV: Design
xvii. Organize and evaluate conclusions
xviii. Form hypotheses based on evaluations of component testing
xix. Design solutions to demonstrate hypotheses
Phase V: Design Testing
xx. Design experimentation on solution designs
xxi. Perform experimentation on solution designs
xxii. Repeat experimentation on solution designs
xxiii. Evaluate solution designs
xxiv. Revise solution designs
Anticipated Testing Procedures:
- Soil Contamination Testing
- Water Contamination Testing
- Soil Compaction Testing
- Soil Flow Rate Testing
- Water Treatment Testing
- Effectiveness of Programs Evaluations
- Contaminant Filtering Techniques
- Composting Techniques
- Collection Techniques
- Air Pollution Testing
- Daily Log keeping
- Interviews, with candidates and inquiries to be selected at a later date
- Referral to research publications
- Audio and Video data recording
- Waste Tracking
- Correlation Testing
- Graphing and Charting
- Referral to Engineering standards
- Referral to research publications
- Evaluation of Analysis
- Evaluation of Design Testing
- Revision of Design
IV. MANAGEMENT PLAN
All research, design, and testing is to be completed by Timothy Lalowski and Jefferson West. The breakdown of specific roles is as follows:
Timothy Lalowski: Project oversight, scheduling, project organization, daily records keeping, academic research, interview coordination, audio and video log management, soil testing, pathogen studies, structural design, and hydrology design.
Jefferson West: Project advisement, report transcription, budget oversight, equipment retention, chemical testing, interview conduction, chemical design, disease protection, and toxin management.
V. EVALUATION PLAN
A. Process (formative) evaluation
Process description is to be submitted to Dr. David O. Carpenter for evaluation in the following format:
1.) Questions and topics prepared for interviews to be submitted in typed format
2.) Testing Procedures to be submitted in standard lab write-up format
3.) Stages of Design to be submitted in Gaant Chart format
4.) Overall log of project activity to be submitted in Gaant and written format
B. Product (summative) evaluation
Project summary is to be submitted to Dr. David O. Carpenter for evaluation in the following format:
1.) Individual data collection sessions to be submitted typed from daily journals.
2.) Interview data to be submitted as audio or visual file and typed format
3.) Test data to be submitted in organized graphs and charts within standard lab write-up format for each individual test
4.) Final summative product to be submitted it typed APA format with summary of activity
VI. COMMITMENT AND CAPACITY
A. In-kind match
Available personal funds: $5,000 in the form of bonds originally intended for educational purposes
Time Availability: 2 years
Timothy Lalowski is a third year Architectural Engineering Major at the Illinois Institute of Technology with additional studies in Civil Engineering and Architecture. Jefferson West is a third year Chemical Engineering Major at the Illinois Institute of Technology and a minor in Business. All programs are ABET accredited at a 4 year university. Both Students are in good academic standing at the University. Both students have the capacity of time commitment to the project should funding requirements be met. Resumes Appended.
VII. BUDGET AND NARRATIVE
A. Budget (Appended)
Total Requested: $6,941
Total Cost: $9,696
B. Budget Narrative
Travel: Travel expenses include airfare to on-sight study location as well as shuttle between Nairobi, Kisumu, and Muhoroni. These three locations serve as three separate study areas.
Equipment: Standard soil, hydrology, and chemical lab equipment is necessary for the testing of conditions and implementations.
Supplies: Supplies necessary for the project involve recording media to log the entirety of the trip and adhere to Engineering standards of experiment procedure and provide a fully transparent representation of the project and its operations.
Other: Additional Expenses include equipment shipping, food, and board. Food and board are provided by the Jane Adeny Memorial School. Equipment shipping is defined as additional shipping costs necessary for international shipping to Muhoroni, Kenya.
Hello. My Name is Timothy Elliot Lalowski. I am a 3rd year Architectural and Civil Engineering Student with a minor in Architecture at the Illinois Institute of Technology. This year, I became inspired to explore the field of Health as a supplementary area of study, and reached out to many organizations around the world looking for opportunities to receive in-field research.
I eventually teamed up with David Carpenter, the leader of the World Health Organization Collaborative Center in Environmental Health, the Institute of Health and the Environment at the University of Albany, as my mentor for my endeavors. Mr. David Carpenter (M.D.) has been overseeing my research and connecting me with professionals in the field around the world. However, UAlbany does not have funding to support any research or internships, so the burden of funding my endeavors has fallen on to me.
Some of the research on this topic can be accomplished through reading textual information from publications contained in library archives and Scholarly Journal Articles Databases such as JSTOR, however, nothing compares to an in-field experience, where real, pressing issues can be witnessed firsthand. For this reason, I am hoping to travel abroad to developing areas of the world such as the slums of India and the villages of Kenya to research detrimental Health issues that face the people who live there.